Recent Articles

John Law: Paper Currency Experiment 1716-1719

The following account of John Law is based upon the Course on Economic History and Economic Thought held at Bocconi University Class 17 – AA 2006/2007, edited by Dario Pagnoni, and available in Italian at the knol at this link: Thus, we provide a translation here to make it more accessible.


Ipuwer Papyrus: An Account of Moses & Pharoah?

Is This Confirmation of the Plagues of Moses in an Egyptian record?

In a recent Bible Codes documentary, a Brad Sparks was interviewed who said that the plagues delivered by God on the Egyptians was recorded on an ancient papyrus known as the Ipuwer papyrus. Is this true? Some have claimed it to be so, but this may be reading more into the text than appears.

Epub Conversion

How to Convert A PDF To Epub

This is a new format for viewing books on ebook readers. Even a PDF does not display well on such readers. But epub format does. This knol will explain the standard, and how to achieve it in a conversion.

Galileo – Biography & Writings

A Collection of Information on Galileo

Einstein once remarked that “a new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.” [1] In the case of Galileo, his views triumphed only after his death for reasons Einstein aptly explained. Galileo was a brave man, and we must always remember that one may live in infamy today, but history can always vindicate you later.

Kidney Stones: How to Pass

Advice - true or mythical to pass a stone

I also detail below my own experience of what circumstances preceded my passing a stone.

The Antikythera Mechanism: Computer of Ancient Greeks

An Amazing Device To Calculate Future Dates

Scientists did not know how to understand the mechanism at first. They assumed due to its antiquity it could not be a computer. However, as its purpose was discovered, its genius was revealed.

John Law’s Theory of Currency in 1705

What did Law believe which led him to inadvertently ruin France in 1720?

Rather than France developing a means to pay off debt from wars, they accepted the ingenious plan of John Law. We discuss elsewhere this gamble of 1716-1719 that ended in the disaster of 1720. Incidentally, and what surprisingly looms as an important character trait, Law supported himself for many years prior to 1716 by gambling […]

Soft Currency: Its History and Pitfalls

From paper currency to debased metal currency

What is the lesson of history about the pitfalls of paper currency and/or a hard currency (gold/silver) that is debased with cheap metals like copper.